Information

You can view any dynamic routes configured using the RIP, OSPF, BGP, and PIM-SM protocols.

You can use this information for further configuration and debugging.

RIP

Routes

Shows the complete routing configuration information and the routing table for an interface configured using the RIP protocol.

Status

Shows the RIP routing protocol process parameters and statistics.

Table 1. Routes

Codes and sub-codes

Shows how the destination routing information is obtained.

Codes

R – RIP, C – connected, S – Static, O – OSPF, B – BGP, K – Kernel route.

Sub-codes

(n) – normal, (s) – static, (d) – default, (r) – redistribute, (i) – interface

Network

Specifies the IP address and subnet mask of the destination.

Next hop

Specifies an IP address of the next-hop routing device.

Metric

Specifies the number of routing devices (hop count) a packet must pass through to reach the final destination.

From

Shows the router (router IP address) from which the metric is calculated to reach the destination. If it is directly connected, it shows self.

Tag

Shows the method used for distinguishing between internal routes (learned by RIP) and external routes learned from External Gateway Protocol (ERP) protocols. 0 shows no tag is attached to the route.

Time

Shows the elapsed time after which the routing entry is flushed from the RIP table.

Table 2. Status

Routing protocol is rip

Shows the routing protocol used.

Sending updates

Shows the time between sending updates.

Next due

Specifies when the next update is due to be sent.

Timeout after

Shows the time-out interval for the RIP route, after which it is declared invalid and removed from the routing table until the garbage-collect time expires.

Garbage collect

Shows the period during which the route metric is set to 16. If no updates are received for the route before the expiry of the garbage-collect timer, a route with metric 16 is deleted from the routing table.

Outgoing update

Shows whether the outgoing filtering list has been set.

Incoming update

Shows whether the incoming filtering list has been set.

Default redistribution metric

Metric of routes that are redistributed from other routes.

Redistributing

Shows the information about the redistribution of other protocols.

Default version control

Shows the version of the RIP packets that are sent and received.

Interface

Shows a RIP-enabled routing interface.

Send

Shows the version of RIP packets sent out to the routing interface. The version is one of the following: RIP1, RIP2.

Recv

Shows the version of RIP packets accepted on the routing interface. The version is one of the following: RIP1, RIP2, or both.

Key-chain

Shows the authentication key-chain name for the interface, if it is configured.

Routing for network

Shows the networks for which the routing process is currently injecting routes.

Routing information sources

Shows the routing sources used to build the routing table. For each source, the following information is displayed.
  • Gateway: Shows an IP address of the next-hop routing device.
  • Bad packets: Shows the number of bad packets received by the router.
  • Bad routes: Shows the number of invalid routes from the router.
  • Distance last update: Shows the time when the administrative distance was last updated.
  • Distance: Shows the administrative distance. The distance displayed by default is 120.

OSPF

Border routers
Shows the information about the internal OSPF routing table entries to an Area Border Router (ABR) and Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR).
Routes
Shows the information about the internal OSPF routing table entries.
Database
Shows the list of information related to the OSPF database summary for a specific router. Each link-state database includes link-state an advertisement from throughout the areas to which the router is attached.
Neighbors (ARP–NDP)
Provides neighbor information based on peer-interface relation.
Interface
Shows OSPF interface information.
Table 3. Border routers

R

Shows that the information for the route is provided to a specific border router.

Network IP address

Shows the router ID of the destination.

Metric

Specifies the cost to reach the final destination.

Area

Shows the area identifier of the outgoing interface.

Next hop

Specifies the management IP address of the next-hop routing device.

Outgoing interface

Shows the name and IP address of the outgoing interface to reach the destination.

Table 4. Routes

N

Shows that the information is provided for a network.

Network IP address

Shows the router ID of the destination.

Metric

Specifies the cost to reach the final destination.

Area

Shows the area identifier of the outgoing interface.

Next hop

Specifies the management IP address of the next-hop routing device.

Directly attached

Shows a network is directly connected to the interface.

Outgoing interface

Shows the name and IP address of the outgoing interface to reach the destination.

Table 5. Database

Link ID

Shows the ID of the link-state advertisement using which a router learns the route. In other words, while a link-status advertisement describes a router, the link-status ID router’s OSPF router ID.

The link-status advertisement describing a network can have one of the following two formats of link-state ID: the network’s IP address or an address generated using the link-status ID.

ADV router

Shows the advertising router ID of the destination.

Age

Shows the time, in seconds, since the LSA was generated.

Seq#

Link-state sequence number (detects old or duplicate link-status advertisements).

CkSum

The checksum of the complete content of the link-status advertisement.

Link count

The number of interfaces detected for the router.

Net link states

Gives information about network LSA originated by DR (designated router)

Router link states

Gives information about router LSA originated by every router.

Summary net link states

Shows the information about summary LSA originated by ABR’s.

Table 6. Neighbors

Neighbor ID

Shows the neighbor router’s ID.

Pri

Shows the router priority assigned to that neighbor.

State

Shows the conversation between router and neighbor since the neighbor was created. It can have one of the following values:
  • Down: Shows the initial status of a neighbor conversation. There has been no recent information received from the neighbor.
  • Attempt: Valid only for neighbors attached to non-broadcast networks. Shows that there has been no recent information received from the neighbor.
  • Init: Shows a hello packet has been received recently from a neighbor although the adjacency is not two-way, that is, a bi-directional communication has not yet been established with neighbor.
  • 2-Way: Shows that bi-directional communication is established between the routers, and the neighbor has included the router ID in its Hello message. The DR and BDR are elected from the set of neighbors in a 2-way status or higher.
  • ExStart: Shows that the two routers are going to synchronize and determine which router will be master and which the slave.
  • Exchange: Shows that the two routers are describing their respective link-state database by sending database description packets.
  • Loading: Shows that link-state request packets are sent to the neighbor, requesting more advertisements that have been discovered but are not yet received in the exchange status.
  • Full: Shows that both routers have accomplished the exchange of all the relevant advertisements and can now appear in router-link and neighbor-link advertisements.
  • Backup: Shows that the neighbor is a backup designated router.
  • Dead time: The waiting time in seconds to receive a hello message from the OSPF neighbor before assuming the neighbor is dead.
  • Address: Specifies the IP address of the router’s interface with the neighbor.
  • Interface: Shows the IP address of the neighbor interface.
  • RXmtL: Shows the link-status retransmit count.
  • RqstL: Shows the link-status request count.
  • DBsmL: Shows the link-state summary count.
Table 7. Interface

Interface value

Shows the status of the physical interface, that is, whether the interface is up or down.

IfIndex

Shows the value of the interface index (IfIndex). It is an identification unique number associated with an interface.

MTU

Shows the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) value of the interface. MTU is the largest physical packet size, in bytes, that a network can transmit. This parameter becomes an issue when networks are interconnected, and the networks have different MTU sizes. Any packets larger than the MTU value are divided (fragmented) into smaller packets before being sent.

BW

Shows the bandwidth of the interface.

Internet address

Shows the IP address of the interface.

Network type/IP address

Shows the type of the network along with the IP address.

Area

Shows the IP address of the area identifier.

MTU mismatch detection

Shows whether the MTU mismatch detection is turned on or off. If it is turned on, it matches the MTU of both the interfaces participating in the neighborship establishment.

Router ID

Shows the identification number of the OSPF router selected at the start of the OSPF process. The router ID is unique within the OSPF domain and only changes if OSPF restarts or is manually modified.

Network type

Shows the type of network to which the OSPF interface is connected. A network can be one of the following types:
  • Point-to-point: A point-to-point network can connect only two routers.
  • Point-to-Multipoint (non-broadcast): A point-to-multipoint network connects one router to several other routers.
  • Broadcast: Shows a network that supports broadcast. In a broadcast network, a single packet sent (broadcasted) by a router is received by all the routers within the network.
  • Non Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA): Shows that the network does not have the capability to broadcast or multicast. It is used to accurately model X.25 and frame-relay environments in multiple-access networks.

Cost

Shows the OSPF metric. It is calculated using the formula: 108/bandwidth (in bits per seconds [bps]) where
  • 10 8: is the reference bandwidth
  • bandwidth: is the bandwidth of the interface in bps

Transmit delay

Shows the time in seconds which the OSPF router waits before flooding a link-state advertisement (LSA) over the link. The link-status age is incremented by this value, before transmitting an LSA. The default value of the transmit delay is 1 second.

State

Shows the current status of the specified interface. The status can be one of the following:
  • DR: The router is a designated router (DR) on the network.
  • BDR: The router is a backup designated router (BDR) on the network.
  • DROTHER: The router is neither a DR nor a BDR on the network, and it establishes adjacencies only with the DR and the BDR.
  • Waiting: The interface router is in waiting to announce the status of the link as DR. This status is normal in case of non-broadcast multi-access network.
  • Point-to-Point: The interface in point-to-point status is fully functional and starts exchanging hello packets with all its neighbors.
  • Point-to-Multipoint: Shows the interface to be point-to-multipoint for OSPF.

Priority

Shows the priority of the interface router. It assists in electing the DR and BDR on the network to which the interface is connected.

Default: 1

A router with priority value 0 can never be a DR/BDR.

Designated Router ID

Shows the DR router ID for the respective network.

Backup Designated Router ID

Shows the BDR router ID for the respective network

Saved Network-LSA sequence number

Shows the network’s link-state sequence number. It is used to calculate the shortest path first (SPF).

Multicast group membership

Shows the multicast group in which the router is a member.

Timer intervals configured

Displays the value of following OSPF timers:
  • Hello: Time interval in seconds that a router sends a hello packet.
  • Dead: Shows the waiting time in seconds before declaring a neighbor dead.
  • Wait: Displays the time interval that leads the interface to cancel the waiting period and elect the DR on the network.
  • Retransmit: Displays the waiting time before re-transmitting a database description (DBD) packet if it has not been acknowledged earlier.
  • Hello due in: Specifies when the next hello packet is due to be sent.
  • Neighbor count: Shows the total number of discovered neighbors on the interface.
  • Adjacent neighbor count: Shows the total number of adjacent neighbors that are fully adjacent to the interface.

BGP

Neighbors (ARP–NDP)
Displays the information about the BGP and its peer connections and shows the number of routes advertised/neighbors to/from that peer.
Routes
Displays the entire routing configuration information and the routing table for an interface configured using the BGP protocol.
Summary
Displays the status of all the BGP connections details such as path, prefixes, and attributes information about all the connections to BGP neighbors.
Table 8. Neighbors

BGP Neighbor

Shows the IP address of the BGP neighbor.

Remote AS

Shows the AS number of the neighbor router.

Local AS

Shows the value of the configured local autonomous systems (AS).

Internal/External link

Displays internal links for internal BGP (iBGP) neighbors and external link for external BGP (eBGP).

BGP version

Shows the BGP version used for communication with the remote router.

Remote router ID

Shows the router ID of the neighbor router.

BGP state

Shows the finite status machine (FSM) stage. It describes what action must be taken by the BGP routing engine and when for session negotiation.

Last read

Displays the time, since BGP router last received a message from the neighbor. The time is displayed in HH:MM:SS format.

Hold time

Displays the time in seconds, until which BGP maintains the session with the neighbor without receiving any message from it.

Keepalive interval

Displays the time interval in seconds specifying how often the BGP router sends the keep-alive message to the neighbor.

Message statistics

Displays the statistics organized by message type.
  • InQ: Shows the number of messages that are in the queue, pending to be processed from the neighbor.
  • OutQ: Shows the number of messages that are in the queue, pending to be sent to the neighbor.
  • Sent: Shows the number of messages sent to the neighbor.
  • Received: Shows the number of messages received from the neighbor.
  • Opens: Shows the total number of open messages sent and received.
  • Notifications: Shows the total number of error notification messages sent and received.
  • Updates: Shows the total number of update messages sent and received.
  • Keepalives: Shows the total number of keep-alive messages sent and received.
  • Route refresh: Shows the total number of route refresh messages sent and received.
  • Capability: Shows the total number of BGP capabilities advertised and received from the neighbor.
  • Total: Shows the total number of messages sent and received.

Minimum time between advertisement runs

Shows the time in seconds between the sent advertisements.

For address family

Shows the IP address family.

Community attribute sent to this neighbor

Shows the numerical value of the BGP community. This numerical value is assigned to a specific prefix and advertised to the neighbor, based on which it decides whether to filter or change attributes.

Accepted prefix

Shows the number of accepted prefixes that can participate in a BGP peer session.

Connections established

Shows the number of times a TCP and a BGP connection has been established successfully.

Dropped

Shows the number of times a valid session failed or has been taken down.

Last reset

Shows the time since when the previously established session with the neighbor ended.

Local host and local port

Shows the IP address and port number of the local BGP router.

Foreign host and foreign port

Shows the IP address of neighbor and BGP destination port number.

Next hop

Shows the management IP address of the next-hop routing device.

Next connect timer due in

Specifies when the next hello packet is due to be sent to the BGP neighbor.

Read thread

Shows if the read thread is on or off.

Write thread

Shows if the write thread is on or off.

Table 9. Routes

BGP table version

Shows the table version number. The version number is updated with any change in the BGP table.

Local router ID

Shows the IP address of the router.

Status codes and origin codes

Shows how the destination routing information is obtained.

Status codes: A status code indicates the status of the table entry and is displayed at the beginning of each line in the table. Status code value can be one of the following: s – suppressed, d –damped, h – history, * – valid, > – best, i – internal, r – Routing Information Base (RIB)-failure, S – Stale, R – Removed.

Origin codes: An origin code indicates the origin of the entry and is displayed at the end of each line in the table. Origin code value can be one of the following: i – Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), e – Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), ? – incomplete/path not clear.

Network

Shows the IP address and subnet mask of the destination.

Next hop

Shows the management IP address of the next hop routing device. 0.0.0.0 indicates the router has non-BGP routes to the network.

Metric

Shows the value of the inter-autonomous system metric.

LocPrf

Shows the local preference value. Local preference is one of the methods to change the path taken by one autonomous system (AS) to reach to another AS. Local preference value indicates to AS about the path that has a local preference, and one with the highest preference being preferred.

Weight

Shows the route weight as set via autonomous system filters. If more than one path exists to a specific IP address, then the path with the highest weight is selected.

Path

Shows the autonomous system path to the destination network.

Total number of prefixes

Shows the total number of prefixes/networks.

Table 10. Summary

BGP router identifier

Shows the router ID of the BGP router

Local AS number

Shows the local autonomous system number to which this router belongs.

RIB entries

Shows the number of routing information entries in the RIB.

Memory

Shows the memory used by RIB entries.

Peer

Shows the number of neighbors with which the connection is established.

Memory

Shows the memory used by neighbor entries.

Neighbor

Shows the IP address of the neighbor.

V

Shows BGP version number provided to the neighbor.

LocPrf

Shows local preference value. Local preference is one of the methods to change the path taken by one autonomous system (AS) to reach to another AS. Local preference value indicates to AS about the path that has local preference, and one with the highest preference being preferred.

AS

Shows the autonomous system number.

MsgRcvd

Shows the number of messages received from the neighbor.

MsgSent

Shows the number of messages sent to the neighbor.

TblVer

Shows the last version of the BGP database that was sent to the neighbor.

InQ

Shows the number of messages that are in the queue, pending to be processed from the neighbor.

OutQ

Shows the number of messages that are in the queue, pending to be sent to the neighbor.

Up/Down

Shows the total time of a BGP session to remain in an established status, or gives the current status of the BGP session, if it is not in an established status.

State/PfxRcd

Shows the status of the neighbor and the number of prefixes received.

Total number of neighbors

Shows the total number of neighbors.

PIM-SM

Interface table
Displays all the PIM enabled interfaces and the neighbor information of each interface.
Multicasting routing table
Displays the information of the multicast groups joined. The information includes the source address, multicast group address, the incoming interface from which packets are accepted, a list of outgoing interfaces to which packets are sent, PIM timers, flag bits, and so on.
RP SET
Displays RP set information, which is a collection of group-to-RP mappings. This information is used to determine the RP for a multicast group and is maintained by a PIM router.