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IPsec connections

You can configure IPsec VPN connections to allow cryptographically secure communication over the public network between two Sophos Firewall devices or between Sophos Firewall and third-party firewalls.

You can configure the following types of IPsec VPNs:

  • Route-based VPNs
  • Policy-based VPNs

You can manage IPsec connections using failover groups.

IPsec profiles

IPsec profiles specify the encryption and authentication algorithms and key exchange mechanisms for policy-based and route-based IPsec connections. In IPsec profiles, you define the phase 1 and phase 2 security parameters.

To configure IPsec profiles, go to Profiles > IPsec profiles.

Restriction

With FIPS turned on, certain encryption restrictions apply to ensure a certain encryption strength. For details, see VPN encryption restrictions with FIPS.

You can edit the default IPsec profiles or clone them and create custom profiles. You can assign a default or custom IPsec policy to IPsec connections. Sophos Firewall establishes IPsec connections based on matching IPsec profiles configured at the connection's local and remote ends.

IPsec connections

You can configure policy-based (host-to-host and site-to-site) and route-based (tunnel interface) IPsec connections.

You can do the following:

  • Click IPsec profiles to edit or create a profile. You can specify the phase 1 and phase 2 IKE (Internet Key Exchange) parameters for establishing IPsec and L2TP tunnels.
  • Click Logs to see the logs.
  • Click Add and specify the settings.

Policy-based connections: You must configure policy-based IPsec connections and the corresponding firewall rules at both networks. If the local and remote subnets overlap, you must specify the NAT setting within the IPsec configuration.

  • Click Wizard and allow the assistant to help you specify the settings for policy-based VPNs. You can't edit connections using the assistant.

Route-based connections: You can configure route-based VPNs by setting Connection type to Tunnel interface. See route-based connections.

Currently, you can't create route-based connections using the assistant. When you configure a route-based IPsec connection, Sophos Firewall automatically creates an XFRM interface, also called a virtual tunnel interface (VTI). The interface is shown as xfrm followed by a number on Network > Interfaces.

Note

Physical interfaces with a virtual interface assigned to them, for example XFRM or VLAN interfaces, have a blue bar on the left. To see the XFRM interface, click the listening interface you've used to configure the route-based IPsec connection. The XFRM interface then appears under this interface.

Interfaces configured with an XFRM interface

You must assign an IP address to XFRM interfaces configured using Any for the local and remote subnets or IP version set to Dual. You must configure static, SD-WAN, or dynamic routes to determine the traffic to be sent to the XFRM interface. SD-WAN routes allow you to apply Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for the traffic through the assigned SD-WAN profiles.

When the local and remote subnets overlap, you must configure the corresponding SNAT and DNAT rules (Rules and policies > NAT rules).

For XFRM interfaces with specific local and remote subnets, you configure the NAT settings for overlapping subnets in the IPsec configuration.

You configure the corresponding firewall rules for all IPsec connections.

Tip

By default, MASQ in an SNAT rule translates the original IP address to the WAN IP address.

However, for route-based VPNs configured with Any for the local and remote subnets or IP version set to Dual, the firewall translates the original source to the XFRM IP address for the translated source set to MASQ.

You can see the XFRM IP address in TCP dump and packet capture. The IP addresses are shown as follows:
WAN IP address: On the outer IP header of the encapsulated packet.
XFRM IP address: On the inner IP header for the source.

Warning

If traffic related to route-based VPNs with traffic selectors matches a masqueraded SNAT rule, the firewall drops the traffic because IP addresses aren't assigned to these XFRM interfaces.

IPsec routes

Sophos Firewall creates IPsec routes automatically when policy-based IPsec tunnels are established. However, you must add IPsec routes for some traffic manually. Some examples are as follows:

Note

If a static or SD-WAN route applies to the remote subnets specified in a policy-based IPsec connection, make sure you set the route precedence to VPN route before static or SD-WAN route. You can do this on the CLI. See the following example:
system route_precedence set vpn static sdwan_policyroute

See how to set route precedence.

Connection status

Connection statuses are of the following two types:

  • Active (active-inactive status): To activate a connection, you can click Activate on save during the configuration. Alternatively, you can click the Active status Icon showing activation status for the connection from the list of configured connections.
  • Connection (established-not established): To establish a connection, you can click Connection status Icon showing connection status for the connection from the list of configured connections.
Active Connection Description
Button showing active status Icon showing connections aren't established Connection is active, but tunnel isn't established.
Button showing active status Icon showing connections are established Connection is active, and tunnels are established.
Button showing active status Icon showing at least one connection's not established Connection is active, but at least one tunnel isn't established. When you configure more than one local or remote subnet, Sophos Firewall establishes a tunnel for each local and remote subnet pair.
Button showing inactive status Icon showing connections aren't established Connection is inactive.

Failover group

A failover group is a sequence of IPsec connections. If the primary connection fails, the next active connection in the group automatically takes over.

Automatic failback: Sophos Firewall checks the remote gateway's health based on the failover condition you specify for the group. It performs the health check at the interval you specify for Gateway failover time-out on Network > WAN link manager.

Sophos Firewall tries to restore the primary IPsec connection when the remote gateway is live again. If it's unable to restore it, it continues to use the secondary connection and won't check the primary connection again for automatic failback. It will only failback to the primary if the secondary connection's remote gateway goes down. To restore the primary connection manually, go to the failover group list, and click the status button off, and then on for the group. This involves downtime.

When the failover group contains more than two IPsec connections, Sophos Firewall fails back to the first available connection in the group's Member connections.

  • To activate a group and establish the primary connection, click Status Button for changing the status.

Turning off a failover group deactivates the active tunnels belonging to the group. You must activate these tunnels individually if required.

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